/** * Post revision functions. * * @package WordPress * @subpackage Post_Revisions */ /** * Determines which fields of posts are to be saved in revisions. * * Does two things. If passed a post *array*, it will return a post array ready * to be inserted into the posts table as a post revision. Otherwise, returns * an array whose keys are the post fields to be saved for post revisions. * * @since 2.6.0 * @access private * * @staticvar array $fields * * @param array $post Optional. A post array to be processed for insertion as a post revision. * @param bool $autosave Optional. Is the revision an autosave? * @return array Post array ready to be inserted as a post revision or array of fields that can be versioned. */ function _wp_post_revision_fields( $post = null, $autosave = false ) { static $fields = null; if ( is_null( $fields ) ) { // Allow these to be versioned $fields = array( 'post_title' => __( 'Title' ), 'post_content' => __( 'Content' ), 'post_excerpt' => __( 'Excerpt' ), ); /** * Filter the list of fields saved in post revisions. * * Included by default: 'post_title', 'post_content' and 'post_excerpt'. * * Disallowed fields: 'ID', 'post_name', 'post_parent', 'post_date', * 'post_date_gmt', 'post_status', 'post_type', 'comment_count', * and 'post_author'. * * @since 2.6.0 * * @param array $fields List of fields to revision. Contains 'post_title', * 'post_content', and 'post_excerpt' by default. */ $fields = apply_filters( '_wp_post_revision_fields', $fields ); // WP uses these internally either in versioning or elsewhere - they cannot be versioned foreach ( array( 'ID', 'post_name', 'post_parent', 'post_date', 'post_date_gmt', 'post_status', 'post_type', 'comment_count', 'post_author' ) as $protect ) unset( $fields[$protect] ); } if ( !is_array($post) ) return $fields; $return = array(); foreach ( array_intersect( array_keys( $post ), array_keys( $fields ) ) as $field ) $return[$field] = $post[$field]; $return['post_parent'] = $post['ID']; $return['post_status'] = 'inherit'; $return['post_type'] = 'revision'; $return['post_name'] = $autosave ? "$post[ID]-autosave-v1" : "$post[ID]-revision-v1"; // "1" is the revisioning system version $return['post_date'] = isset($post['post_modified']) ? $post['post_modified'] : ''; $return['post_date_gmt'] = isset($post['post_modified_gmt']) ? $post['post_modified_gmt'] : ''; return $return; } /** * Creates a revision for the current version of a post. * * Typically used immediately after a post update, as every update is a revision, * and the most recent revision always matches the current post. * * @since 2.6.0 * * @param int $post_id The ID of the post to save as a revision. * @return int|WP_Error|void Void or 0 if error, new revision ID, if success. */ function wp_save_post_revision( $post_id ) { if ( defined( 'DOING_AUTOSAVE' ) && DOING_AUTOSAVE ) return; if ( ! $post = get_post( $post_id ) ) return; if ( ! post_type_supports( $post->post_type, 'revisions' ) ) return; if ( 'auto-draft' == $post->post_status ) return; if ( ! wp_revisions_enabled( $post ) ) return; // Compare the proposed update with the last stored revision verifying that // they are different, unless a plugin tells us to always save regardless. // If no previous revisions, save one if ( $revisions = wp_get_post_revisions( $post_id ) ) { // grab the last revision, but not an autosave foreach ( $revisions as $revision ) { if ( false !== strpos( $revision->post_name, "{$revision->post_parent}-revision" ) ) { $last_revision = $revision; break; } } /** * Filter whether the post has changed since the last revision. * * By default a revision is saved only if one of the revisioned fields has changed. * This filter can override that so a revision is saved even if nothing has changed. * * @since 3.6.0 * * @param bool $check_for_changes Whether to check for changes before saving a new revision. * Default true. * @param WP_Post $last_revision The the last revision post object. * @param WP_Post $post The post object. * */ if ( isset( $last_revision ) && apply_filters( 'wp_save_post_revision_check_for_changes', $check_for_changes = true, $last_revision, $post ) ) { $post_has_changed = false; foreach ( array_keys( _wp_post_revision_fields() ) as $field ) { if ( normalize_whitespace( $post->$field ) != normalize_whitespace( $last_revision->$field ) ) { $post_has_changed = true; break; } } /** * Filter whether a post has changed. * * By default a revision is saved only if one of the revisioned fields has changed. * This filter allows for additional checks to determine if there were changes. * * @since 4.1.0 * * @param bool $post_has_changed Whether the post has changed. * @param WP_Post $last_revision The last revision post object. * @param WP_Post $post The post object. * */ $post_has_changed = (bool) apply_filters( 'wp_save_post_revision_post_has_changed', $post_has_changed, $last_revision, $post ); //don't save revision if post unchanged if ( ! $post_has_changed ) { return; } } } $return = _wp_put_post_revision( $post ); // If a limit for the number of revisions to keep has been set, // delete the oldest ones. $revisions_to_keep = wp_revisions_to_keep( $post ); if ( $revisions_to_keep < 0 ) return $return; $revisions = wp_get_post_revisions( $post_id, array( 'order' => 'ASC' ) ); $delete = count($revisions) - $revisions_to_keep; if ( $delete < 1 ) return $return; $revisions = array_slice( $revisions, 0, $delete ); for ( $i = 0; isset( $revisions[$i] ); $i++ ) { if ( false !== strpos( $revisions[ $i ]->post_name, 'autosave' ) ) continue; wp_delete_post_revision( $revisions[ $i ]->ID ); } return $return; } /** * Retrieve the autosaved data of the specified post. * * Returns a post object containing the information that was autosaved for the * specified post. If the optional $user_id is passed, returns the autosave for that user * otherwise returns the latest autosave. * * @since 2.6.0 * * @param int $post_id The post ID. * @param int $user_id Optional The post author ID. * @return WP_Post|false The autosaved data or false on failure or when no autosave exists. */ function wp_get_post_autosave( $post_id, $user_id = 0 ) { $revisions = wp_get_post_revisions( $post_id, array( 'check_enabled' => false ) ); foreach ( $revisions as $revision ) { if ( false !== strpos( $revision->post_name, "{$post_id}-autosave" ) ) { if ( $user_id && $user_id != $revision->post_author ) continue; return $revision; } } return false; } /** * Determines if the specified post is a revision. * * @since 2.6.0 * * @param int|WP_Post $post Post ID or post object. * @return false|int False if not a revision, ID of revision's parent otherwise. */ function wp_is_post_revision( $post ) { if ( !$post = wp_get_post_revision( $post ) ) return false; return (int) $post->post_parent; } /** * Determines if the specified post is an autosave. * * @since 2.6.0 * * @param int|WP_Post $post Post ID or post object. * @return false|int False if not a revision, ID of autosave's parent otherwise */ function wp_is_post_autosave( $post ) { if ( !$post = wp_get_post_revision( $post ) ) return false; if ( false !== strpos( $post->post_name, "{$post->post_parent}-autosave" ) ) return (int) $post->post_parent; return false; } /** * Inserts post data into the posts table as a post revision. * * @since 2.6.0 * @access private * * @param int|WP_Post|array|null $post Post ID, post object OR post array. * @param bool $autosave Optional. Is the revision an autosave? * @return int|WP_Error WP_Error or 0 if error, new revision ID if success. */ function _wp_put_post_revision( $post = null, $autosave = false ) { if ( is_object($post) ) $post = get_object_vars( $post ); elseif ( !is_array($post) ) $post = get_post($post, ARRAY_A); if ( ! $post || empty($post['ID']) ) return new WP_Error( 'invalid_post', __( 'Invalid post ID.' ) ); if ( isset($post['post_type']) && 'revision' == $post['post_type'] ) return new WP_Error( 'post_type', __( 'Cannot create a revision of a revision' ) ); $post = _wp_post_revision_fields( $post, $autosave ); $post = wp_slash($post); //since data is from db $revision_id = wp_insert_post( $post ); if ( is_wp_error($revision_id) ) return $revision_id; if ( $revision_id ) { /** * Fires once a revision has been saved. * * @since 2.6.0 * * @param int $revision_id Post revision ID. */ do_action( '_wp_put_post_revision', $revision_id ); } return $revision_id; } /** * Gets a post revision. * * @since 2.6.0 * * @param int|WP_Post $post The post ID or object. * @param string $output Optional. OBJECT, ARRAY_A, or ARRAY_N. * @param string $filter Optional sanitation filter. @see sanitize_post(). * @return WP_Post|array|null Null if error or post object if success. */ function wp_get_post_revision(&$post, $output = OBJECT, $filter = 'raw') { if ( !$revision = get_post( $post, OBJECT, $filter ) ) return $revision; if ( 'revision' !== $revision->post_type ) return null; if ( $output == OBJECT ) { return $revision; } elseif ( $output == ARRAY_A ) { $_revision = get_object_vars($revision); return $_revision; } elseif ( $output == ARRAY_N ) { $_revision = array_values(get_object_vars($revision)); return $_revision; } return $revision; } /** * Restores a post to the specified revision. * * Can restore a past revision using all fields of the post revision, or only selected fields. * * @since 2.6.0 * * @param int|WP_Post $revision_id Revision ID or revision object. * @param array $fields Optional. What fields to restore from. Defaults to all. * @return int|false|null Null if error, false if no fields to restore, (int) post ID if success. */ function wp_restore_post_revision( $revision_id, $fields = null ) { if ( !$revision = wp_get_post_revision( $revision_id, ARRAY_A ) ) return $revision; if ( !is_array( $fields ) ) $fields = array_keys( _wp_post_revision_fields() ); $update = array(); foreach( array_intersect( array_keys( $revision ), $fields ) as $field ) { $update[$field] = $revision[$field]; } if ( !$update ) return false; $update['ID'] = $revision['post_parent']; $update = wp_slash( $update ); //since data is from db $post_id = wp_update_post( $update ); if ( ! $post_id || is_wp_error( $post_id ) ) return $post_id; // Add restore from details $restore_details = array( 'restored_revision_id' => $revision_id, 'restored_by_user' => get_current_user_id(), 'restored_time' => time() ); update_post_meta( $post_id, '_post_restored_from', $restore_details ); // Update last edit user update_post_meta( $post_id, '_edit_last', get_current_user_id() ); /** * Fires after a post revision has been restored. * * @since 2.6.0 * * @param int $post_id Post ID. * @param int $revision_id Post revision ID. */ do_action( 'wp_restore_post_revision', $post_id, $revision['ID'] ); return $post_id; } /** * Deletes a revision. * * Deletes the row from the posts table corresponding to the specified revision. * * @since 2.6.0 * * @param int|WP_Post $revision_id Revision ID or revision object. * @return array|false|WP_Post|WP_Error|null Null or WP_Error if error, deleted post if success. */ function wp_delete_post_revision( $revision_id ) { if ( ! $revision = wp_get_post_revision( $revision_id ) ) { return $revision; } $delete = wp_delete_post( $revision->ID ); if ( $delete ) { /** * Fires once a post revision has been deleted. * * @since 2.6.0 * * @param int $revision_id Post revision ID. * @param object|array $revision Post revision object or array. */ do_action( 'wp_delete_post_revision', $revision->ID, $revision ); } return $delete; } /** * Returns all revisions of specified post. * * @since 2.6.0 * * @param int|WP_Post $post_id Optional. Post ID or WP_Post object. Default is global $post. * @return array An array of revisions, or an empty array if none. */ function wp_get_post_revisions( $post_id = 0, $args = null ) { $post = get_post( $post_id ); if ( ! $post || empty( $post->ID ) ) return array(); $defaults = array( 'order' => 'DESC', 'orderby' => 'date ID', 'check_enabled' => true ); $args = wp_parse_args( $args, $defaults ); if ( $args['check_enabled'] && ! wp_revisions_enabled( $post ) ) return array(); $args = array_merge( $args, array( 'post_parent' => $post->ID, 'post_type' => 'revision', 'post_status' => 'inherit' ) ); if ( ! $revisions = get_children( $args ) ) return array(); return $revisions; } /** * Determine if revisions are enabled for a given post. * * @since 3.6.0 * * @param WP_Post $post The post object. * @return bool True if number of revisions to keep isn't zero, false otherwise. */ function wp_revisions_enabled( $post ) { return wp_revisions_to_keep( $post ) !== 0; } /** * Determine how many revisions to retain for a given post. * * By default, an infinite number of revisions are kept. * * The constant WP_POST_REVISIONS can be set in wp-config to specify the limit * of revisions to keep. * * @since 3.6.0 * * @param WP_Post $post The post object. * @return int The number of revisions to keep. */ function wp_revisions_to_keep( $post ) { $num = WP_POST_REVISIONS; if ( true === $num ) $num = -1; else $num = intval( $num ); if ( ! post_type_supports( $post->post_type, 'revisions' ) ) $num = 0; /** * Filter the number of revisions to save for the given post. * * Overrides the value of WP_POST_REVISIONS. * * @since 3.6.0 * * @param int $num Number of revisions to store. * @param WP_Post $post Post object. */ return (int) apply_filters( 'wp_revisions_to_keep', $num, $post ); } /** * Sets up the post object for preview based on the post autosave. * * @since 2.7.0 * @access private * * @param WP_Post $post * @return WP_Post|false */ function _set_preview( $post ) { if ( ! is_object( $post ) ) { return $post; } $preview = wp_get_post_autosave( $post->ID ); if ( ! is_object( $preview ) ) { return $post; } $preview = sanitize_post( $preview ); $post->post_content = $preview->post_content; $post->post_title = $preview->post_title; $post->post_excerpt = $preview->post_excerpt; add_filter( 'get_the_terms', '_wp_preview_terms_filter', 10, 3 ); return $post; } /** * Filters the latest content for preview from the post autosave. * * @since 2.7.0 * @access private */ function _show_post_preview() { if ( isset($_GET['preview_id']) && isset($_GET['preview_nonce']) ) { $id = (int) $_GET['preview_id']; if ( false === wp_verify_nonce( $_GET['preview_nonce'], 'post_preview_' . $id ) ) wp_die( __('You do not have permission to preview drafts.') ); add_filter('the_preview', '_set_preview'); } } /** * Filters terms lookup to set the post format. * * @since 3.6.0 * @access private * * @param array $terms * @param int $post_id * @param string $taxonomy * @return array */ function _wp_preview_terms_filter( $terms, $post_id, $taxonomy ) { if ( ! $post = get_post() ) return $terms; if ( empty( $_REQUEST['post_format'] ) || $post->ID != $post_id || 'post_format' != $taxonomy || 'revision' == $post->post_type ) return $terms; if ( 'standard' == $_REQUEST['post_format'] ) $terms = array(); elseif ( $term = get_term_by( 'slug', 'post-format-' . sanitize_key( $_REQUEST['post_format'] ), 'post_format' ) ) $terms = array( $term ); // Can only have one post format return $terms; } /** * Gets the post revision version. * * @since 3.6.0 * @access private * * @param WP_Post $revision * @return int|false */ function _wp_get_post_revision_version( $revision ) { if ( is_object( $revision ) ) $revision = get_object_vars( $revision ); elseif ( !is_array( $revision ) ) return false; if ( preg_match( '/^\d+-(?:autosave|revision)-v(\d+)$/', $revision['post_name'], $matches ) ) return (int) $matches[1]; return 0; } /** * Upgrade the revisions author, add the current post as a revision and set the revisions version to 1 * * @since 3.6.0 * @access private * * @global wpdb $wpdb * * @param WP_Post $post Post object * @param array $revisions Current revisions of the post * @return bool true if the revisions were upgraded, false if problems */ function _wp_upgrade_revisions_of_post( $post, $revisions ) { global $wpdb; // Add post option exclusively $lock = "revision-upgrade-{$post->ID}"; $now = time(); $result = $wpdb->query( $wpdb->prepare( "INSERT IGNORE INTO `$wpdb->options` (`option_name`, `option_value`, `autoload`) VALUES (%s, %s, 'no') /* LOCK */", $lock, $now ) ); if ( ! $result ) { // If we couldn't get a lock, see how old the previous lock is $locked = get_option( $lock ); if ( ! $locked ) { // Can't write to the lock, and can't read the lock. // Something broken has happened return false; } if ( $locked > $now - 3600 ) { // Lock is not too old: some other process may be upgrading this post. Bail. return false; } // Lock is too old - update it (below) and continue } // If we could get a lock, re-"add" the option to fire all the correct filters. update_option( $lock, $now ); reset( $revisions ); $add_last = true; do { $this_revision = current( $revisions ); $prev_revision = next( $revisions ); $this_revision_version = _wp_get_post_revision_version( $this_revision ); // Something terrible happened if ( false === $this_revision_version ) continue; // 1 is the latest revision version, so we're already up to date. // No need to add a copy of the post as latest revision. if ( 0 < $this_revision_version ) { $add_last = false; continue; } // Always update the revision version $update = array( 'post_name' => preg_replace( '/^(\d+-(?:autosave|revision))[\d-]*$/', '$1-v1', $this_revision->post_name ), ); // If this revision is the oldest revision of the post, i.e. no $prev_revision, // the correct post_author is probably $post->post_author, but that's only a good guess. // Update the revision version only and Leave the author as-is. if ( $prev_revision ) { $prev_revision_version = _wp_get_post_revision_version( $prev_revision ); // If the previous revision is already up to date, it no longer has the information we need :( if ( $prev_revision_version < 1 ) $update['post_author'] = $prev_revision->post_author; } // Upgrade this revision $result = $wpdb->update( $wpdb->posts, $update, array( 'ID' => $this_revision->ID ) ); if ( $result ) wp_cache_delete( $this_revision->ID, 'posts' ); } while ( $prev_revision ); delete_option( $lock ); // Add a copy of the post as latest revision. if ( $add_last ) wp_save_post_revision( $post->ID ); return true; } /** * Canonical API to handle WordPress Redirecting * * Based on "Permalink Redirect" from Scott Yang and "Enforce www. Preference" * by Mark Jaquith * * @package WordPress * @since 2.3.0 */ /** * Redirects incoming links to the proper URL based on the site url. * * Search engines consider www.somedomain.com and somedomain.com to be two * different URLs when they both go to the same location. This SEO enhancement * prevents penalty for duplicate content by redirecting all incoming links to * one or the other. * * Prevents redirection for feeds, trackbacks, searches, comment popup, and * admin URLs. Does not redirect on non-pretty-permalink-supporting IIS 7+, * page/post previews, WP admin, Trackbacks, robots.txt, searches, or on POST * requests. * * Will also attempt to find the correct link when a user enters a URL that does * not exist based on exact WordPress query. Will instead try to parse the URL * or query in an attempt to figure the correct page to go to. * * @since 2.3.0 * * @global WP_Rewrite $wp_rewrite * @global bool $is_IIS * @global WP_Query $wp_query * @global wpdb $wpdb * * @param string $requested_url Optional. The URL that was requested, used to * figure if redirect is needed. * @param bool $do_redirect Optional. Redirect to the new URL. * @return string|void The string of the URL, if redirect needed. */ function redirect_canonical( $requested_url = null, $do_redirect = true ) { global $wp_rewrite, $is_IIS, $wp_query, $wpdb; if ( isset( $_SERVER['REQUEST_METHOD'] ) && ! in_array( strtoupper( $_SERVER['REQUEST_METHOD'] ), array( 'GET', 'HEAD' ) ) ) { return; } // If we're not in wp-admin and the post has been published and preview nonce // is non-existent or invalid then no need for preview in query if ( is_preview() && get_query_var( 'p' ) && 'publish' == get_post_status( get_query_var( 'p' ) ) ) { if ( ! isset( $_GET['preview_id'] ) || ! isset( $_GET['preview_nonce'] ) || ! wp_verify_nonce( $_GET['preview_nonce'], 'post_preview_' . (int) $_GET['preview_id'] ) ) { $wp_query->is_preview = false; } } if ( is_trackback() || is_search() || is_comments_popup() || is_admin() || is_preview() || is_robots() || ( $is_IIS && !iis7_supports_permalinks() ) ) { return; } if ( !$requested_url ) { // build the URL in the address bar $requested_url = is_ssl() ? 'https://' : 'http://'; $requested_url .= $_SERVER['HTTP_HOST']; $requested_url .= $_SERVER['REQUEST_URI']; } $original = @parse_url($requested_url); if ( false === $original ) return; // Some PHP setups turn requests for / into /index.php in REQUEST_URI // See: https://core.trac.wordpress.org/ticket/5017 // See: https://core.trac.wordpress.org/ticket/7173 // Disabled, for now: // $original['path'] = preg_replace('|/index\.php$|', '/', $original['path']); $redirect = $original; $redirect_url = false; // Notice fixing if ( !isset($redirect['path']) ) $redirect['path'] = ''; if ( !isset($redirect['query']) ) $redirect['query'] = ''; // If the original URL ended with non-breaking spaces, they were almost // certainly inserted by accident. Let's remove them, so the reader doesn't // see a 404 error with no obvious cause. $redirect['path'] = preg_replace( '|(%C2%A0)+$|i', '', $redirect['path'] ); // It's not a preview, so remove it from URL if ( get_query_var( 'preview' ) ) { $redirect['query'] = remove_query_arg( 'preview', $redirect['query'] ); } if ( is_feed() && ( $id = get_query_var( 'p' ) ) ) { if ( $redirect_url = get_post_comments_feed_link( $id, get_query_var( 'feed' ) ) ) { $redirect['query'] = _remove_qs_args_if_not_in_url( $redirect['query'], array( 'p', 'page_id', 'attachment_id', 'pagename', 'name', 'post_type', 'feed'), $redirect_url ); $redirect['path'] = parse_url( $redirect_url, PHP_URL_PATH ); } } if ( is_singular() && 1 > $wp_query->post_count && ($id = get_query_var('p')) ) { $vars = $wpdb->get_results( $wpdb->prepare("SELECT post_type, post_parent FROM $wpdb->posts WHERE ID = %d", $id) ); if ( isset($vars[0]) && $vars = $vars[0] ) { if ( 'revision' == $vars->post_type && $vars->post_parent > 0 ) $id = $vars->post_parent; if ( $redirect_url = get_permalink($id) ) $redirect['query'] = _remove_qs_args_if_not_in_url( $redirect['query'], array( 'p', 'page_id', 'attachment_id', 'pagename', 'name', 'post_type' ), $redirect_url ); } } // These tests give us a WP-generated permalink if ( is_404() ) { // Redirect ?page_id, ?p=, ?attachment_id= to their respective url's $id = max( get_query_var('p'), get_query_var('page_id'), get_query_var('attachment_id') ); if ( $id && $redirect_post = get_post($id) ) { $post_type_obj = get_post_type_object($redirect_post->post_type); if ( $post_type_obj->public ) { $redirect_url = get_permalink($redirect_post); $redirect['query'] = _remove_qs_args_if_not_in_url( $redirect['query'], array( 'p', 'page_id', 'attachment_id', 'pagename', 'name', 'post_type' ), $redirect_url ); } } if ( get_query_var( 'day' ) && get_query_var( 'monthnum' ) && get_query_var( 'year' ) ) { $year = get_query_var( 'year' ); $month = get_query_var( 'monthnum' ); $day = get_query_var( 'day' ); $date = sprintf( '%04d-%02d-%02d', $year, $month, $day ); if ( ! wp_checkdate( $month, $day, $year, $date ) ) { $redirect_url = get_month_link( $year, $month ); $redirect['query'] = _remove_qs_args_if_not_in_url( $redirect['query'], array( 'year', 'monthnum', 'day' ), $redirect_url ); } } elseif ( get_query_var( 'monthnum' ) && get_query_var( 'year' ) && 12 < get_query_var( 'monthnum' ) ) { $redirect_url = get_year_link( get_query_var( 'year' ) ); $redirect['query'] = _remove_qs_args_if_not_in_url( $redirect['query'], array( 'year', 'monthnum' ), $redirect_url ); } if ( ! $redirect_url ) { if ( $redirect_url = redirect_guess_404_permalink() ) { $redirect['query'] = _remove_qs_args_if_not_in_url( $redirect['query'], array( 'page', 'feed', 'p', 'page_id', 'attachment_id', 'pagename', 'name', 'post_type' ), $redirect_url ); } } } elseif ( is_object($wp_rewrite) && $wp_rewrite->using_permalinks() ) { // rewriting of old ?p=X, ?m=2004, ?m=200401, ?m=20040101 if ( is_attachment() && !empty($_GET['attachment_id']) && ! $redirect_url ) { if ( $redirect_url = get_attachment_link(get_query_var('attachment_id')) ) $redirect['query'] = remove_query_arg('attachment_id', $redirect['query']); } elseif ( is_single() && !empty($_GET['p']) && ! $redirect_url ) { if ( $redirect_url = get_permalink(get_query_var('p')) ) $redirect['query'] = remove_query_arg(array('p', 'post_type'), $redirect['query']); } elseif ( is_single() && !empty($_GET['name']) && ! $redirect_url ) { if ( $redirect_url = get_permalink( $wp_query->get_queried_object_id() ) ) $redirect['query'] = remove_query_arg('name', $redirect['query']); } elseif ( is_page() && !empty($_GET['page_id']) && ! $redirect_url ) { if ( $redirect_url = get_permalink(get_query_var('page_id')) ) $redirect['query'] = remove_query_arg('page_id', $redirect['query']); } elseif ( is_page() && !is_feed() && isset($wp_query->queried_object) && 'page' == get_option('show_on_front') && $wp_query->queried_object->ID == get_option('page_on_front') && ! $redirect_url ) { $redirect_url = home_url('/'); } elseif ( is_home() && !empty($_GET['page_id']) && 'page' == get_option('show_on_front') && get_query_var('page_id') == get_option('page_for_posts') && ! $redirect_url ) { if ( $redirect_url = get_permalink(get_option('page_for_posts')) ) $redirect['query'] = remove_query_arg('page_id', $redirect['query']); } elseif ( !empty($_GET['m']) && ( is_year() || is_month() || is_day() ) ) { $m = get_query_var('m'); switch ( strlen($m) ) { case 4: // Yearly $redirect_url = get_year_link($m); break; case 6: // Monthly $redirect_url = get_month_link( substr($m, 0, 4), substr($m, 4, 2) ); break; case 8: // Daily $redirect_url = get_day_link(substr($m, 0, 4), substr($m, 4, 2), substr($m, 6, 2)); break; } if ( $redirect_url ) $redirect['query'] = remove_query_arg('m', $redirect['query']); // now moving on to non ?m=X year/month/day links } elseif ( is_day() && get_query_var('year') && get_query_var('monthnum') && !empty($_GET['day']) ) { if ( $redirect_url = get_day_link(get_query_var('year'), get_query_var('monthnum'), get_query_var('day')) ) $redirect['query'] = remove_query_arg(array('year', 'monthnum', 'day'), $redirect['query']); } elseif ( is_month() && get_query_var('year') && !empty($_GET['monthnum']) ) { if ( $redirect_url = get_month_link(get_query_var('year'), get_query_var('monthnum')) ) $redirect['query'] = remove_query_arg(array('year', 'monthnum'), $redirect['query']); } elseif ( is_year() && !empty($_GET['year']) ) { if ( $redirect_url = get_year_link(get_query_var('year')) ) $redirect['query'] = remove_query_arg('year', $redirect['query']); } elseif ( is_author() && !empty($_GET['author']) && preg_match( '|^[0-9]+$|', $_GET['author'] ) ) { $author = get_userdata(get_query_var('author')); if ( ( false !== $author ) && $wpdb->get_var( $wpdb->prepare( "SELECT ID FROM $wpdb->posts WHERE $wpdb->posts.post_author = %d AND $wpdb->posts.post_status = 'publish' LIMIT 1", $author->ID ) ) ) { if ( $redirect_url = get_author_posts_url($author->ID, $author->user_nicename) ) $redirect['query'] = remove_query_arg('author', $redirect['query']); } } elseif ( is_category() || is_tag() || is_tax() ) { // Terms (Tags/categories) $term_count = 0; foreach ( $wp_query->tax_query->queried_terms as $tax_query ) $term_count += count( $tax_query['terms'] ); $obj = $wp_query->get_queried_object(); if ( $term_count <= 1 && !empty($obj->term_id) && ( $tax_url = get_term_link((int)$obj->term_id, $obj->taxonomy) ) && !is_wp_error($tax_url) ) { if ( !empty($redirect['query']) ) { // Strip taxonomy query vars off the url. $qv_remove = array( 'term', 'taxonomy'); if ( is_category() ) { $qv_remove[] = 'category_name'; $qv_remove[] = 'cat'; } elseif ( is_tag() ) { $qv_remove[] = 'tag'; $qv_remove[] = 'tag_id'; } else { // Custom taxonomies will have a custom query var, remove those too: $tax_obj = get_taxonomy( $obj->taxonomy ); if ( false !== $tax_obj->query_var ) $qv_remove[] = $tax_obj->query_var; } $rewrite_vars = array_diff( array_keys($wp_query->query), array_keys($_GET) ); if ( !array_diff($rewrite_vars, array_keys($_GET)) ) { // Check to see if all the Query vars are coming from the rewrite, none are set via $_GET $redirect['query'] = remove_query_arg($qv_remove, $redirect['query']); //Remove all of the per-tax qv's // Create the destination url for this taxonomy $tax_url = parse_url($tax_url); if ( ! empty($tax_url['query']) ) { // Taxonomy accessible via ?taxonomy=..&term=.. or any custom qv.. parse_str($tax_url['query'], $query_vars); $redirect['query'] = add_query_arg($query_vars, $redirect['query']); } else { // Taxonomy is accessible via a "pretty-URL" $redirect['path'] = $tax_url['path']; } } else { // Some query vars are set via $_GET. Unset those from $_GET that exist via the rewrite foreach ( $qv_remove as $_qv ) { if ( isset($rewrite_vars[$_qv]) ) $redirect['query'] = remove_query_arg($_qv, $redirect['query']); } } } } } elseif ( is_single() && strpos($wp_rewrite->permalink_structure, '%category%') !== false && $cat = get_query_var( 'category_name' ) ) { $category = get_category_by_path( $cat ); $post_terms = wp_get_object_terms($wp_query->get_queried_object_id(), 'category', array('fields' => 'tt_ids')); if ( (!$category || is_wp_error($category)) || ( !is_wp_error($post_terms) && !empty($post_terms) && !in_array($category->term_taxonomy_id, $post_terms) ) ) $redirect_url = get_permalink($wp_query->get_queried_object_id()); } // Post Paging if ( is_singular() && ! is_front_page() && get_query_var('page') ) { if ( !$redirect_url ) $redirect_url = get_permalink( get_queried_object_id() ); $redirect_url = trailingslashit( $redirect_url ) . user_trailingslashit( get_query_var( 'page' ), 'single_paged' ); $redirect['query'] = remove_query_arg( 'page', $redirect['query'] ); } // paging and feeds if ( get_query_var('paged') || is_feed() || get_query_var('cpage') ) { while ( preg_match( "#/$wp_rewrite->pagination_base/?[0-9]+?(/+)?$#", $redirect['path'] ) || preg_match( '#/(comments/?)?(feed|rss|rdf|atom|rss2)(/+)?$#', $redirect['path'] ) || preg_match( "#/{$wp_rewrite->comments_pagination_base}-[0-9]+(/+)?$#", $redirect['path'] ) ) { // Strip off paging and feed $redirect['path'] = preg_replace("#/$wp_rewrite->pagination_base/?[0-9]+?(/+)?$#", '/', $redirect['path']); // strip off any existing paging $redirect['path'] = preg_replace('#/(comments/?)?(feed|rss2?|rdf|atom)(/+|$)#', '/', $redirect['path']); // strip off feed endings $redirect['path'] = preg_replace("#/{$wp_rewrite->comments_pagination_base}-[0-9]+?(/+)?$#", '/', $redirect['path']); // strip off any existing comment paging } $addl_path = ''; if ( is_feed() && in_array( get_query_var('feed'), $wp_rewrite->feeds ) ) { $addl_path = !empty( $addl_path ) ? trailingslashit($addl_path) : ''; if ( !is_singular() && get_query_var( 'withcomments' ) ) $addl_path .= 'comments/'; if ( ( 'rss' == get_default_feed() && 'feed' == get_query_var('feed') ) || 'rss' == get_query_var('feed') ) $addl_path .= user_trailingslashit( 'feed/' . ( ( get_default_feed() == 'rss2' ) ? '' : 'rss2' ), 'feed' ); else $addl_path .= user_trailingslashit( 'feed/' . ( ( get_default_feed() == get_query_var('feed') || 'feed' == get_query_var('feed') ) ? '' : get_query_var('feed') ), 'feed' ); $redirect['query'] = remove_query_arg( 'feed', $redirect['query'] ); } elseif ( is_feed() && 'old' == get_query_var('feed') ) { $old_feed_files = array( 'wp-atom.php' => 'atom', 'wp-commentsrss2.php' => 'comments_rss2', 'wp-feed.php' => get_default_feed(), 'wp-rdf.php' => 'rdf', 'wp-rss.php' => 'rss2', 'wp-rss2.php' => 'rss2', ); if ( isset( $old_feed_files[ basename( $redirect['path'] ) ] ) ) { $redirect_url = get_feed_link( $old_feed_files[ basename( $redirect['path'] ) ] ); wp_redirect( $redirect_url, 301 ); die(); } } if ( get_query_var('paged') > 0 ) { $paged = get_query_var('paged'); $redirect['query'] = remove_query_arg( 'paged', $redirect['query'] ); if ( !is_feed() ) { if ( $paged > 1 && !is_single() ) { $addl_path = ( !empty( $addl_path ) ? trailingslashit($addl_path) : '' ) . user_trailingslashit("$wp_rewrite->pagination_base/$paged", 'paged'); } elseif ( !is_single() ) { $addl_path = !empty( $addl_path ) ? trailingslashit($addl_path) : ''; } } elseif ( $paged > 1 ) { $redirect['query'] = add_query_arg( 'paged', $paged, $redirect['query'] ); } } if ( get_option('page_comments') && ( ( 'newest' == get_option('default_comments_page') && get_query_var('cpage') > 0 ) || ( 'newest' != get_option('default_comments_page') && get_query_var('cpage') > 1 ) ) ) { $addl_path = ( !empty( $addl_path ) ? trailingslashit($addl_path) : '' ) . user_trailingslashit( $wp_rewrite->comments_pagination_base . '-' . get_query_var('cpage'), 'commentpaged' ); $redirect['query'] = remove_query_arg( 'cpage', $redirect['query'] ); } $redirect['path'] = user_trailingslashit( preg_replace('|/' . preg_quote( $wp_rewrite->index, '|' ) . '/?$|', '/', $redirect['path']) ); // strip off trailing /index.php/ if ( !empty( $addl_path ) && $wp_rewrite->using_index_permalinks() && strpos($redirect['path'], '/' . $wp_rewrite->index . '/') === false ) $redirect['path'] = trailingslashit($redirect['path']) . $wp_rewrite->index . '/'; if ( !empty( $addl_path ) ) $redirect['path'] = trailingslashit($redirect['path']) . $addl_path; $redirect_url = $redirect['scheme'] . '://' . $redirect['host'] . $redirect['path']; } if ( 'wp-register.php' == basename( $redirect['path'] ) ) { if ( is_multisite() ) { /** This filter is documented in wp-login.php */ $redirect_url = apply_filters( 'wp_signup_location', network_site_url( 'wp-signup.php' ) ); } else { $redirect_url = site_url( 'wp-login.php?action=register' ); } wp_redirect( $redirect_url, 301 ); die(); } } // tack on any additional query vars $redirect['query'] = preg_replace( '#^\??&*?#', '', $redirect['query'] ); if ( $redirect_url && !empty($redirect['query']) ) { parse_str( $redirect['query'], $_parsed_query ); $redirect = @parse_url($redirect_url); if ( ! empty( $_parsed_query['name'] ) && ! empty( $redirect['query'] ) ) { parse_str( $redirect['query'], $_parsed_redirect_query ); if ( empty( $_parsed_redirect_query['name'] ) ) unset( $_parsed_query['name'] ); } $_parsed_query = rawurlencode_deep( $_parsed_query ); $redirect_url = add_query_arg( $_parsed_query, $redirect_url ); } if ( $redirect_url ) $redirect = @parse_url($redirect_url); // www.example.com vs example.com $user_home = @parse_url(home_url()); if ( !empty($user_home['host']) ) $redirect['host'] = $user_home['host']; if ( empty($user_home['path']) ) $user_home['path'] = '/'; // Handle ports if ( !empty($user_home['port']) ) $redirect['port'] = $user_home['port']; else unset($redirect['port']); // trailing /index.php $redirect['path'] = preg_replace('|/' . preg_quote( $wp_rewrite->index, '|' ) . '/*?$|', '/', $redirect['path']); // Remove trailing spaces from the path $redirect['path'] = preg_replace( '#(%20| )+$#', '', $redirect['path'] ); if ( !empty( $redirect['query'] ) ) { // Remove trailing spaces from certain terminating query string args $redirect['query'] = preg_replace( '#((p|page_id|cat|tag)=[^&]*?)(%20| )+$#', '$1', $redirect['query'] ); // Clean up empty query strings $redirect['query'] = trim(preg_replace( '#(^|&)(p|page_id|cat|tag)=?(&|$)#', '&', $redirect['query']), '&'); // Redirect obsolete feeds $redirect['query'] = preg_replace( '#(^|&)feed=rss(&|$)#', '$1feed=rss2$2', $redirect['query'] ); // Remove redundant leading ampersands $redirect['query'] = preg_replace( '#^\??&*?#', '', $redirect['query'] ); } // strip /index.php/ when we're not using PATHINFO permalinks if ( !$wp_rewrite->using_index_permalinks() ) $redirect['path'] = str_replace( '/' . $wp_rewrite->index . '/', '/', $redirect['path'] ); // trailing slashes if ( is_object($wp_rewrite) && $wp_rewrite->using_permalinks() && !is_404() && (!is_front_page() || ( is_front_page() && (get_query_var('paged') > 1) ) ) ) { $user_ts_type = ''; if ( get_query_var('paged') > 0 ) { $user_ts_type = 'paged'; } else { foreach ( array('single', 'category', 'page', 'day', 'month', 'year', 'home') as $type ) { $func = 'is_' . $type; if ( call_user_func($func) ) { $user_ts_type = $type; break; } } } $redirect['path'] = user_trailingslashit($redirect['path'], $user_ts_type); } elseif ( is_front_page() ) { $redirect['path'] = trailingslashit($redirect['path']); } // Strip multiple slashes out of the URL if ( strpos($redirect['path'], '//') > -1 ) $redirect['path'] = preg_replace('|/+|', '/', $redirect['path']); // Always trailing slash the Front Page URL if ( trailingslashit( $redirect['path'] ) == trailingslashit( $user_home['path'] ) ) $redirect['path'] = trailingslashit($redirect['path']); // Ignore differences in host capitalization, as this can lead to infinite redirects // Only redirect no-www <=> yes-www if ( strtolower($original['host']) == strtolower($redirect['host']) || ( strtolower($original['host']) != 'www.' . strtolower($redirect['host']) && 'www.' . strtolower($original['host']) != strtolower($redirect['host']) ) ) $redirect['host'] = $original['host']; $compare_original = array( $original['host'], $original['path'] ); if ( !empty( $original['port'] ) ) $compare_original[] = $original['port']; if ( !empty( $original['query'] ) ) $compare_original[] = $original['query']; $compare_redirect = array( $redirect['host'], $redirect['path'] ); if ( !empty( $redirect['port'] ) ) $compare_redirect[] = $redirect['port']; if ( !empty( $redirect['query'] ) ) $compare_redirect[] = $redirect['query']; if ( $compare_original !== $compare_redirect ) { $redirect_url = $redirect['scheme'] . '://' . $redirect['host']; if ( !empty($redirect['port']) ) $redirect_url .= ':' . $redirect['port']; $redirect_url .= $redirect['path']; if ( !empty($redirect['query']) ) $redirect_url .= '?' . $redirect['query']; } if ( ! $redirect_url || $redirect_url == $requested_url ) { return; } // Hex encoded octets are case-insensitive. if ( false !== strpos($requested_url, '%') ) { if ( !function_exists('lowercase_octets') ) { function lowercase_octets($matches) { return strtolower( $matches[0] ); } } $requested_url = preg_replace_callback('|%[a-fA-F0-9][a-fA-F0-9]|', 'lowercase_octets', $requested_url); } /** * Filter the canonical redirect URL. * * Returning false to this filter will cancel the redirect. * * @since 2.3.0 * * @param string $redirect_url The redirect URL. * @param string $requested_url The requested URL. */ $redirect_url = apply_filters( 'redirect_canonical', $redirect_url, $requested_url ); // yes, again -- in case the filter aborted the request if ( ! $redirect_url || $redirect_url == $requested_url ) { return; } if ( $do_redirect ) { // protect against chained redirects if ( !redirect_canonical($redirect_url, false) ) { wp_redirect($redirect_url, 301); exit(); } else { // Debug // die("1: $redirect_url
2: " . redirect_canonical( $redirect_url, false ) ); return; } } else { return $redirect_url; } } /** * Removes arguments from a query string if they are not present in a URL * DO NOT use this in plugin code. * * @since 3.4.0 * @access private * * @param string $query_string * @param array $args_to_check * @param string $url * @return string The altered query string */ function _remove_qs_args_if_not_in_url( $query_string, Array $args_to_check, $url ) { $parsed_url = @parse_url( $url ); if ( ! empty( $parsed_url['query'] ) ) { parse_str( $parsed_url['query'], $parsed_query ); foreach ( $args_to_check as $qv ) { if ( !isset( $parsed_query[$qv] ) ) $query_string = remove_query_arg( $qv, $query_string ); } } else { $query_string = remove_query_arg( $args_to_check, $query_string ); } return $query_string; } /** * Attempts to guess the correct URL based on query vars * * @since 2.3.0 * * @global wpdb $wpdb WordPress database abstraction object. * @global WP_Rewrite $wp_rewrite * * @return false|string The correct URL if one is found. False on failure. */ function redirect_guess_404_permalink() { global $wpdb, $wp_rewrite; if ( get_query_var('name') ) { $where = $wpdb->prepare("post_name LIKE %s", $wpdb->esc_like( get_query_var('name') ) . '%'); // if any of post_type, year, monthnum, or day are set, use them to refine the query if ( get_query_var('post_type') ) $where .= $wpdb->prepare(" AND post_type = %s", get_query_var('post_type')); else $where .= " AND post_type IN ('" . implode( "', '", get_post_types( array( 'public' => true ) ) ) . "')"; if ( get_query_var('year') ) $where .= $wpdb->prepare(" AND YEAR(post_date) = %d", get_query_var('year')); if ( get_query_var('monthnum') ) $where .= $wpdb->prepare(" AND MONTH(post_date) = %d", get_query_var('monthnum')); if ( get_query_var('day') ) $where .= $wpdb->prepare(" AND DAYOFMONTH(post_date) = %d", get_query_var('day')); $post_id = $wpdb->get_var("SELECT ID FROM $wpdb->posts WHERE $where AND post_status = 'publish'"); if ( ! $post_id ) return false; if ( get_query_var( 'feed' ) ) return get_post_comments_feed_link( $post_id, get_query_var( 'feed' ) ); elseif ( get_query_var( 'page' ) ) return trailingslashit( get_permalink( $post_id ) ) . user_trailingslashit( get_query_var( 'page' ), 'single_paged' ); else return get_permalink( $post_id ); } return false; } /** * * @global WP_Rewrite $wp_rewrite */ function wp_redirect_admin_locations() { global $wp_rewrite; if ( ! ( is_404() && $wp_rewrite->using_permalinks() ) ) return; $admins = array( home_url( 'wp-admin', 'relative' ), home_url( 'dashboard', 'relative' ), home_url( 'admin', 'relative' ), site_url( 'dashboard', 'relative' ), site_url( 'admin', 'relative' ), ); if ( in_array( untrailingslashit( $_SERVER['REQUEST_URI'] ), $admins ) ) { wp_redirect( admin_url() ); exit; } $logins = array( home_url( 'wp-login.php', 'relative' ), home_url( 'login', 'relative' ), site_url( 'login', 'relative' ), ); if ( in_array( untrailingslashit( $_SERVER['REQUEST_URI'] ), $logins ) ) { wp_redirect( site_url( 'wp-login.php', 'login' ) ); exit; } } inside of the Guideline Realize find out how to yield an essay and plainly ponder the development and suggestions of crafting essays | セフレが欲しい人の為のセフレ募集サイト【PINK18】

inside of the Guideline Realize find out how to yield an essay and plainly ponder the development and suggestions of crafting essays

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Read the contents with the Guidebook A means to compose an essay and enormously nicely imagine about the framework and techniques of composing essays

The phrase essay arrived into Russian language from French and historically will appear by way of the Latin time period exagium (weighing). French essa can generally translate textual content, education, examination, experiment with, sketch, sketch. An essay is frequently a prose composition a bit of amount and complimentary composition, expressing exclusive ordeals and sights greater than a specified dilemma or problems, and without a doubt not proclaiming for staying decisive or exhaustive method with the topic make any difference. Inside Explanatory dictionary of foreign phrases L. P. Rat essay is defined as essay treats any problems not in systematic scientific form, and f-r-e-e form. Representation Of Women Essay
Big encyclopedic dictionary gives the following definition: an Essay may be a genre of philosophical, literary-critical, historical, biographical, journalistic prose that combines emphasized individual author’s position with laid-back, more often than not paradoxical statement, focused on speaking. Concise literary encyclopedia elaborates: an Essay could possibly be a prose composition a tad amount and freed from demand composition, treating the wonderful matter and represents an try to convey the private encounters and sights, a person way or another associated with it.

Some signs of an essay:

-The presence of a particular subject or question. Work for the analysis of a wide range of problems, by definition, cannot be made with the genre of essay.

-Essay expresses exclusive impressions and considerations around a exclusive subject or problems, and positively does not claim to basically be decisive or exhaustive process on the subject matter.

-As a rule, the essay suggests a new, subjectively colored phrase about anything, such a product can have a philosophical, historical, biographical, journalistic, literary criticism, popular scientific or purely fictional character.

The contents together with the essay are evaluated first author’s personality – his world, thoughts and feelings.

The genre has turn into popular in recent years. The Creator in the genre of the essay is considered Montaigne (Experiments, 1580). Today’s essay is offered to be a job all too often enough. It is a single inside the main components of documents (for admission to school or employment). Essay contest helps in the variety of preferred choose the most efficient!

It is important making essays and for young professionals.

How the candidate was equipped to apply himself, as explained by their achievements and failures, allows the employer to determine if this individual is good for business, is there enough know-how in order to meet the expectations around the future and benefit the company (organization, enterprise). Representations Essay
The purpose belonging to your essay is to develop skills, such as independent creative thinking and a written statement of own thoughts. Composing essays is extremely useful because it allows an author to master to evidently and correctly formulate concepts, organize knowledge, use the basic concepts to allocate causal relationships, to illustrate the know-how of relevant examples to argue their conclusions. The most relevant subject matter for your essay of a young specialist is the theme of me and my career. The theme belonging with the essay was given for the Commission (the employer) was straight forward to evaluate the features of one’s thinking, creativity, enthusiasm and potential. The ultimate way to achieve this result – to write down down frankly and openly, while remaining honest with ourselves. If you are honest, there is every chance that your essay will start thinking about unnatural.

The framework and layout of essays

  • The framework using the essay is determined by the demands requirements:
  • the author of an essay relating to the trouble are presented inside form of a brief abstract (T).
  • the idea needs for to be supported by evidence – so the thesis followed by arguments (A).

Arguments are facts, phenomena of social life, events, life situations and life routines, scientific evidence, reference for the opinion of scientists, etc. It is Better to give two arguments in favor of each thesis, a particular argument seems unconvincing, three arguments can overload the presentation, made inside the genre, focused on brevity and imagery.

Thus, the essay takes which includes a ring framework (the number of theses and arguments depends for the subject, the chosen plan, the logic of development of thought):

  • membership
  • the thesis, arguments
  • the thesis, arguments
  • the thesis, arguments
  • conclusion.

When crafting an essay it is also important to check out the following points:

Introduction and conclusion ought to focus around the condition (from the introduction it is put, the conclusion summarizes the author’s opinion). It is necessary to designate paragraphs, break lines, establishing logical connection of paragraphs: this is the integrity of one’s work. Style of generating: essays inherent emotionality, expressiveness, artistry. Experts believe that proper effect provide short, quick, varied according towards the tone for your proposal, the skillful use while using the most modern of punctuation – the dash. However, the style reflects the characteristics belonging towards the individual, it is also useful to remember.

Before you begin crafting your essay, pay attention with the following questions. Representative Essay
The answers will allow you to more plainly define what is to jot down from the essay:

Affecting essay exclusive quality or ability, ask yourself:

  1. are I a single way or another as from those whom I know?
  2. what is evident is the quality?

About routines you were doing (doing):

  1. what made me to do this activity?
  2. why I continued(u) to do this?

On every event your life, which you mentioned:

  • why I remember this event?
  • if it made any difference for me as being a human being?
  • how do I react to that?
  • if it was a revelation for me, what I did not know?

About each particular person you mentioned:

  1. why did I call that human being?
  2. do I long to mostly be like him?
  3. what are his qualities I admire?
  4. whether what he said is something that I will remember for a lifetime?
  5. if I had revised their sights?

About each of the preferences and what you do not like:

  1. why I like it or not like it?
  2. did this circumstance greatly on my life?

Each failure:

  1. what I have learned?
  2. something useful I learned from this predicament?

Classification essay

From the point of view belonging on the contents with all the essay are:

  • philosophical,
  • literary-critical,
  • historical,
  • art,
  • journalistic,
  • spiritual and religious etc.

On the literary form during the essay appear around the form:

  • reviews,
  • lyrical miniatures,
  • notes
  • pages along with the diary,
  • letters, etc.

There are also essays:

  • descriptive
  • narrative,
  • reflective,
  • critical
  • analytical etc.

In this case, based on compositional features works made inside of the genre of essay.

Finally, the classification in the essay into two large groups:

personal, subjective essay, where the main element is the disclosure of one particular party or another author’s personality, essay objective, where individual principle is predicament to the subject description or any idea.

Essay for that young specialist greater than a distinct difficulty belongs for the second group.

Signs essay

It is possible to allocate some General characteristics (features) inside the genre, which are typically listed in encyclopedias and dictionaries:

A minimal amount of.

Any hard borders, of course, does not exist. The amount of essays is from three to seven pages of computer textual content. For example, in Harvard business school essays are very often written only on two pages. In Russian universities Pets essay to ten pages, however, typewritten textual content.

The unique matter and emphasized its subjective interpretation.

The essay subject is forever concrete. Essays could quite possibly not contain a lot of topics or hints (thoughts). It reflects only a person option, a person thought. And develops it. This is the answer to 1 question. Cost-free composition is an important feature relating to the essay. The researchers note that essay on nature is arranged so that tolerates no formal framework. It is usually built against the laws of logic, is subject to arbitrary associations, guided by the principle All the way in which around.

The ease belonging for the narrative.

The author throughout the essay, it is important to establish trust and communication style aided by the reader in order to acquire understood, he deliberately avoids the complicated, unclear, overly strict builds. The researchers note that a good essay can craft only 1 who is fluent in the subject matter, sees it from different sides, and ready to present for the reader not exhaustive, but a multidimensional view of one’s phenomenon that became the starting point of his reflection.

A penchant for paradoxes.

The essay is meant to surprise the reader (listener) is, according to many researchers, its mandatory quality. The starting point for reflection, embodied in an essay is frequently aphoristic, bright statement or definition of a paradox, almost facing at first glance indisputable, but mutually exclusive claims, specifications, abstracts.

Internal semantic unity.

Perhaps this is 1 inside the paradoxes inside the genre. Freed from demand composition, focused on subjectivity, the essay nevertheless has an internal semantic unity, i.E. , coherence of key points and statements, internal harmony of arguments and associations, consistency of those judgments, which are expressed with the exclusive position in the author.

Orientation speaking.

At the same time will want to be avoided in essays slang, stereotyped phrases, abbreviations of phrases, too flippant tone. The language used when crafting an essay are advised to be taken seriously. So, when providing an essay it is important to determine (to understand) his issue, to define the desired scope and purpose of each paragraph. Start which includes a main idea or a bright phrase. Task – to immediately capture the attention belonging towards reader (listener). Here is frequently used a comparative allegory, when an unexpected fact or event is associated with all the main subject belonging with the essay.

Rules of generating an essay

Rules of formal essay crafting can only be called one particular thing – the presence of your respective header.

The internal development of an essay might possibly be arbitrary. Since this is thought to be a minor written work that do not require a repetition of your respective conclusions at the end, they tends to be included inside main textual content or within the title.

The argument could be preceded by the formulation because of the predicament. The wording because of the predicament may likely coincide because of the final conclusion.

Unlike the abstract, which is addressed to any reader, therefore, starts with I want to talk about… And ends I arrived for the following conclusions… An essay might be a remark addressed to a prepared reader (the listener). That is, the particular person who in General already have an idea of what will be discussed. It allows the author belonging with the essay concentrate within the discovery of a new and not to clutter the presentation to the official details.

Mistakes in essay writing

Unlike tests, essays do not assume the multiple-choice format (when you have a choice of several answers). Essay manufacturing is not limited by time, you possibly can rewrite it many times, ask friends to glimpse at your essay. Enjoy all the possibilities and check out to avoid common mistakes.

The bad verify.

Do not contemplate that you’ll be able to confine your spell test. Reread your essay and make sure that there is any ambiguous language, bad turnovers, etc. Examples, which need to not get note:

I am proud that I was in a position to resist the use of drugs, alcohol, tobacco.

To work in your firm (organization), located in a wonderful place where a lot from the architecture with the Gothic style, is for me a fascinating drawback.

Tedious Preface. Insufficient amount of detail.

Too frequently interesting essay lost in what constitutes the transfer of claims without illustrating them with examples. Essay typical clichés: the importance of hard work and perseverance, learning from mistakes, etc.

Verbosity.

Essay limited to a specified number of words and phrases and phrases, so you need to wise up. Sometimes this means giving up some concepts or details, especially if they are already mentioned somewhere or not have a immediate relationship for the case. Such things only distract the attention over the reader (listener) and overshadow the main theme using the essay.

Long phrase.

The longer the sentence, the better – so think of some candidates. However, this is far inside the truth. Long sentences still does not prove the rightness to the author, and short sentences ordinarily make a greater impact. Greatest of all, when in essay, long phrases interspersed with short. Examine reading the essay aloud. If you feel that you breath, break the paragraph into smaller paragraphs.

When you’re finished developing essays, do this exercise. Give each paragraph the letter is either S (short) or M (medium) or L (long). S – less than 10 phrases, M is less than 20 text and phrases, L – 20 or more phrases and phrases.

  1. Right essay has the following or similar order in the letters – M S M L M S.
  2. Wrong essay characterizes this sequence of letters – S S S M L L L.

Do not overload essay.

When building an essay throw away the phrase from encyclopedias. Misuse of such conditions distract the reader’s attention, lessen the importance to the essay.

Avoiding such common mistakes, you will have the capacity to interest the expert Committee (employer) my go through.

Check essay.

Great importance when crafting an essay is the verify about the first version. When crafting a draft, your main task is to develop the argumentation, to grind the basic thoughts and to arrange them in strict sequence, accompanying their illustrative materials or ancillary data etc. Creating the first version, give it a day or two to rest up, and then return to work on examine and improving, in the fresh mind.

When checking essays, first of all, pay attention to inherit important points:

First of all, it is important to remember that the essay genre is subjective, so the rating may be subjective. You really should not focus over the whole mass of employers.

Data presented:

No make any difference what question you answer, you need to reach specific goals. You expect that when you yield essays you will have in mind the following:

  1. Have I answered the question?
  2. How evidently and accurately I stated my thoughts?
  3. Natural sounds that I have written, if there were any errors?

Also make sure that you:

  • Demonstrated their desire to build a career in a selected direction.
  • Focused on building a career in a chosen field.
  • Included with the story from an individual to three qualities, strengths, characteristics that distinguish you from other candidates.
  • Presented at least one particular strong argument in favor when using the fact that the employer invited you to your business.
  • Communication skills / crafting.

The essay is also intended to require a glance at your ability to Express thoughts on paper and your establishing skills. Consultant to the selection of experts says, Your essay would be wise to not characterize you as the future writer or a philologist, you are the future leader and Manager. For success in business, it is important the ability to present their thoughts, and the ability to Express them on paper, there are those who easily communicates with other people.

Poorly written (presented) essays will ensure that you have been accepted into the business.

The image of a real particular person.

The expert Commission (the employer) wants to see within the essay the image belonging towards man who wrote it. It is important not only choose a glance at results, come across, and character belonging towards the candidate. We are looking for with the documents something elusive that can’t show numbers, so I hope to notice it in an essay. In any case, do not miss the opportunity to tell us about yourself in your essays. This will aid us to ensure that we start thinking about the nomination it is frequently a real man or woman and not just a sum of different indicators. It is important the following is to be honest, sincere, completely unique, i.E. , to acquire themselves! Experts believe that regularly, graduates, job seekers definitely want to seem like something: a leader, Mature man or woman that they forget to forever be merely human!

Personality.

The only approach to make it so that the Board (employer) saw all the documents, the image – to make during the essay element from your private, extraordinary, special. Your essay will immediately get more interesting and attracting attention. They will guidance you to stand out among hundreds of other applicants.

The essay should really be personalized. Boring to undergo essays that abound with platitudes serves being a waste of time. Still do not understand about the personality within the candidate.

Details.

Everything that you publish on the essay needs to be proved by examples to refer to your experience. Details will make your essay interesting, exclusive, specified.

Distinctive features / Uniqueness / something interesting, funny.

According to experts, graduates (job seekers) do not be afraid that they will go beyond permissible, it is better to obtain yourself. Totally all too often, graduates worry that whether they will manage to make the perfect impression, so they removed all belonging with the essays that makes them outstanding. As safe inside the point of view of graduates, essays quite tedious to realize.

You do not need to make jokes in their essays to make them interesting. However, look at out to use all available means to ensure that your essay is remembered.

Honesty.

The expert Commission does not tolerate parties that like to throw dust on the eyes. It would be better if with the essay you reflect the true problem. At the same time, not focus on their faults, although they are present in your character. You have becoming honest, but positive. Speak about yourself and your positive qualities! The so-called weaknesses, you’ll want to present the following: previously, it was my fault, now turned into a positive quality.

Literary work.

Representatives throughout the expert committees like essays to undergo which will likely be a pleasure. Make sure that your essay is not difficult to scan. Give him a bit of more time: take a look at whether your consistent thoughts, whether they are leading to a logical conclusion topics. Humor is normally a great tool but use it wisely. Sarcastic or brash tone in most cases irritating. The real humor is an art, it serves like a sign of good taste. In his essays, you tell a story of success, indicate the reasons why you want to build a career on the direction you have chosen. You could potentially go even further by producing an essay around the form of literary works: story, story. However, this serves to be a risky approach, as most people are not particularly good writers, besides so it is possible to minimize the seriousness of your respective narrative. Finally, employers will not invite you in your business just because you are a wonderful storyteller.

Examples essay

If You, dear readers, are already familiar because of the content of section Secrets and techniques regarding how to compose an essay and now have a good idea because of the composition and pointers of essay constructing familiar aided by the methodology and imagine the the best way to look at essay what errors can occur when crafting essay now, essay good essay on Your chosen subject – You are missing the remarkably modest: to see examples belonging towards essay. By themselves, the examples will not replace Your essay. And they should certainly not be copied and put in as their is something for losers, for those who can’t and incapable. The examples given here and the other – in order to improve the understanding while using the above rules, comparing them to these simple material.


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